An HTML H1 Tag against a purple background

TIP #1: Headings should not contain other headings.


<h1>Sample Heading Text<h1>Subtext</h1></h1>


Remove the nested headings, or replace them with SPAN elements.

<h1>Sample Heading Text<span>Subtext</span></h1>


TIP #2: Use HTML headings instead of applying CSS heading styles to non-headings.


<div style="font-size:1.5em; color:#cc0000;">Sample Heading Text</div>


Change the element to an appropriate heading element (H1, H2, H3, etc) and apply CSS styles if necessary.

<h1 style="color:#cc0000;">Sample Heading Text</h1>

To be accessible to screen readers, figures and images in PDF documents should not have blank ALT text, except for decorative images which should be marked as artifacts.

Each image should have an ALT attribute describing the picture, which screen readers can read aloud.


Still life with colorful tulips

ALT="Still life photo of colorful tulips in a glass vase"

ADDITIONAL NOTE: When an image contains words that are important to understanding the content, the text alternative should include those words. This will allow the alternative to accurately represent the image.

Read more about PDF Techniques for WCAG: Text Alternatives.

Blue html Code BackgroundFACT: Web pages that contain duplicate IDs can cause problems in screen readers.

If two or more elements on the same page share the same ID, this can cause problems in screen readers which use IDs for labeling controls and table headings.

It can also cause problems in JavaScript methods like getElementById and querySelector, which behave inconsistently when duplicate IDs are present.

Change the IDs so all are unique for each element.

Dyslexia a general term for disorders that involve difficulty in learning to read or interpret words, letters, and other symbols, but that do not affect general intelligence. It is the most common cause of reading, writing, and spelling difficulties.

Of people with reading difficulties, 70-80% are likely to have some form of dyslexia. It is estimated that between 5-10% of the population has dyslexia, but this number can also be as high as 17%.

Here are some CSS tips to consider when designing web content for dyslexics.

Beware Italics
Italicized characters can be difficult for dyslexics to read.

Column Widths
Use narrow column widths (60 to 80 characters). Tracking lines of unbroken text across a page can be difficult.

No Justification
Never use justified text. It causes "rivers" that make text difficult for dyslexics to read.

River Effect in Justified Text

Use Sans-serif Fonts
Serif fonts (like Times Roman) have "feet" at the end of the letter strokes. This can be a nightmare for dyslexics to read because the letters look like they are all connected. Use sans-serif fonts.

See the difference between Serif vs Sans-serif typefaces


Resource:  OpenDyslexic

OpenDyslexic is a new open source font created to increase readability for readers with dyslexia. The typeface includes regular, bold, italic, and bold-italic styles. It is being updated continually and improved based on input from dyslexic users. OpenDyslexic is free for Commercial and Personal use.


Read More Accessible Website Design Advice: Accessible Best Practice: Don’t Use Color As Part of Your Instructional Content


Website Accessibility Testing Service: Mary Gillen can test your website to determine if it meets accessibility standards:

WCAG 2.0: 110 checkpoints covering A, AA and AAA W3 accessibility guidelines
Section 508: 15 US federal guidelines covered by 47 accessibility checkpoints

You will receive a full report and checklists of items on your website that need to be fixed in order to be compliant.

Mary is also available to implement the changes on your website so your organization will be compliant.

Contact Mary today at 508-768-8418 or via email at to schedule your test.