ACCESSIBILITY TESTING: How to Copy Comments from One PDF to Another

Adobe Acrobat Pro DC Comment Icons

As an accessibility testing auditor & remediator, I provide commented layouts in PDF format to website developers to help them fix the sections of web pages that need to meet WCAG 2.1 Guideline compliance.

Many of the web pages have the same header and footer content. It is time consuming to have to comment the same sections over and over again for each PDF website page layout.

SO…HERE’S THE FIX

1) In Acrobat Pro DC, add comments to the header and footer (or any other sections that are consistent on all the website pages you are testing) of a “master” layout PDF file…most likely the Home Page. Save the PDF file.

PDF Comments - Files

2) In Acrobat Pro DC, open the “clean” copy of the PDF where you want to import the comments.

3) Click the Comment Tool to open the Comments panel.

Adobe Acrobat DC Comment Tool

4) Click on the three dots in the top right corner of the Comments panel.

5) Select Import Data File.

Import Data File in Adobe Acrobat Pro DC

6) In the Import Comments dialog, select the PDF file that contains the tester’s comments you want to import.

7) Click Open and the comments will be imported into the “clean” PDF. Save the PDF.

Import Comments - After

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PDF Accessibility Remediation How to Fix 40 Common Errors

Whether you have limited experience with the PDF remediation process, are expanding your knowledge on how to remediate PDFs, or simply need a resource that can help remind you how to fix a frustrating error, the info provided in this e-book can help.

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ACCESSIBLE PDFs: Discover How to Correct Typos in Tagged Text

Four Adobe PDF Icons in a row

What happens when your tagged text doesn’t match visual text?

Even though the text in your PDF looks correct, there may be typos or extra spacing behind the scenes that causes screen readers to announce the content incorrectly.

Tagged text must be free from line breaks and split words. The Adobe Accessibility Checker does not alert you to these issues.

Here’s how you can determine the back-end content issues and fix them, using Adobe Acrobat Pro DC.


How to Figure Out What is Wrong with the Content

1) Open the PDF in Adobe Acrobat Pro DC.

2) Select File > Save as > Text (Plain).

3) Save the file to your computer.

4) Open the text file in Microsoft Word.

5) Use the grammar and spell check tools to find typos or spacing issues.


How to Fix These Problems in the PDF File

1) With the PDF open in Adobe Acrobat Pro DC, select the Tags Tree

Tags Tree Icon in Adobe Acrobat Pro DC

2) Locate the tag containing the typo or spacing issue.

3) Right click and select Copy Contents to Clipboard

Copy Contents to Clipboard Command in Adobe Acrobat Pro DC

4) Right click the tag again and select Properties

Properties option in Adobe Acrobat Pro

5) Paste the copied content into the “Actual Text” field and make the corrections.

Actual Text field in Object Properties of Adobe Acrobat Pro DC

6) Save the PDF file.

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PDF Accessibility Remediation How to Fix 40 Common Errors

Whether you have limited experience with the PDF remediation process, are expanding your knowledge on how to remediate PDFs, or simply need a resource that can help remind you how to fix a frustrating error, the info provided in this e-book can help.

Download now.

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WEB DEV ACCESSIBILITY: Use Relative Rather Than Absolute Units in CSS Property Values

abstract pixel art design wallpaper background backdrop

Low-vision users, and a lot of people over 50, need to increase the browser default font size to make text easier to read.

If your web content font sizes are set in absolute units, such as pixels, the user will not be able to re-size the text.

Relative units like EM and percentages “stretch” according to the screen size and/or user’s preferred font size, and work on a large range of devices.

Using relative units helps satisfy the WCAG 2.1 Guideline 1.4.4 Resize text Level AA.

Need to convert pixels to EMs?

Use this handy online tool, developed by Brian Cray: http://pxtoem.com

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WEBSITE ACCESSIBILITY TESTING & REMEDIATION SERVICES: Mary Gillen is an experienced Website Accessibility Compliance Auditor and Remediator. She can test your website to determine if it meets accessibility standards:

WCAG 2.1: 312 checkpoints covering A, AA and AAA W3 accessibility guidelines
Section 508: 15 US federal guidelines covered by 59 accessibility checkpoints

Find out more about Mary Gillen’s Accessibility Testing & Remediation Services: Websites, PDFs, Office Docs & Videos

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TOOL: Render Scientific Papers to Accessible HTML

Scientific Formula Illustration

Check out Allen Institute for AI’s online tool Paper to HTML Converter, an experimental prototype that aims to render scientific papers in HTML so they can be more easily read by screen readers or on mobile devices.

Still in beta, the system is currently able to process PDFs, LaTeX source, and PubMed Central XMLs. To use this system, upload a scientific PDF (or LaTeX zip file or JATS XML) on the main page. When you press upload, the system will process the document in the background and return the HTML when it is done. This usually takes around 1-2 minutes per PDF depending on the size of the file, and is much faster for LaTeX or XML.

Note that there are still several known limitations when using the system. Tables are currently extracted from PDFs as images, which are not accessible. Mathematical content is either extracted with low fidelity or not being extracted at all from PDFs. Processing of LaTeX source and PubMed Central XML may lack some of the features implemented for PDF processing. The folks at Allen institute for AI are working to improve these components.

You can also have a look at the Paper Example Gallery. Clicking on one will render a reader-friendly HTML version.

HOW TO: Create Accessible Word Clouds

Word Cloud

A word cloud is a collection, or cluster, of words depicted in different sizes. The bigger and bolder the word appears, the more often it’s mentioned within a given text and the more important it is. [SOURCE]

So…how do you make a word cloud accessible?

To make a word cloud accessible for folks using screen readers or the keyboard to navigate the content, ensure that the raw cloud data is structured using HTML OL list elements (ordered lists defined by the OL tag).

By ensuring that the raw data is structured with OL tags in HTML, screen readers such as JAWS and NVDA will recognize the hierarchy of the list items and announce the information as it is structured and in the order that the content appears in the Document Object Model (DOM). The tabbing order will also be recognized within browsers as well. This will ensure that the most popular items or those items with the highest frequency will be accessed first with the keyboard.

[SOURCE]

REMEDIATING PDFs: How to Fix 40 Common Errors

 PDF Accessibillity Remediation: How to Fix 40 Common Errors

REMEDIATION HELP: “PDF Accessibility Remediation: How to Fix 40 Common Errors” by Mary Gillen.

Step-by-step guide…available for immediate download >> https://accessiblewebsiteservices.com/how-to-fix-40-pdf-accessibility-errors/ #pdf #accessibility #PDF #stepbystep #instruction #diy

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ACCESSIBLE PDFs: How to Make Math Formulas Accessible to Screen Readers

Four Adobe PDF Icons in a row

NOTE: Have been receiving lots of questions concerning the accessibility of math and scientific formulas in PDF documents. This post is the first in a series of how to make STEM content accessible in different document content.

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Sometimes just complying with basic standards is not enough if you want your PDF document content to be accessible to all assistive technologies.

Case in point: consider STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) formulas.

According to PDF/UA accessibility guidelines, “All mathematical expressions shall be enclosed within a Formula tag and shall have an ALT attribute.”

How to Describe an Equation

Have a look at this math equation:

m equals begin fraction m sub 0 over begin square root 1 minus begin fraction v sup 2 over c sup 2 end fraction end square root end fraction

You have to remember that the screen reader user is listening to the equation, so its ALT text description would be set to:

ALT=”m equals begin fraction m sub 0 over begin square root 1 minus begin fraction v sup 2 over c sup 2 end fraction end square root end fraction” [SOURCE]

Advice from Adobe

“Because speech software may handle Formula tags differently from normal text, it may be necessary to add a description using alternate text.”

However…

…according to Ted Page of Accessible Digital Documents, if you do so, the content may not be read by some earlier versions of the NVDA screen reader, with or without an ALT attribute.

Solutions That You Should Test

  1. Nest a <P> tag in the Formula tag that has a text alternative in an Actual Text attribute. This content can be accessed by NVDA.

    P tag nested in Formula tag
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    Actual Text option in PDF file

  2. The Formula tag is an inline level element. If it is used as a block level element, the attribute “Placement: Block” is required. Otherwise some assistive technologies are not able to present it correctly. Follow these steps:

    1. In the Acrobat Pro Tags pane, right click the Formula tag.
    2. Select Properties.
    3. On the Tag tab of the Object Properties dialog, click the Edit Attribute Objects button.
    4. In the Attributes dialog, if there is not a “/Attribute Object # <<Dictionary>>” item, click the New Item button.
    5. Select “/Attribute Object # <<Dictionary>>” and click the New Item button.
    6. In the Add Key and Value dialog, enter Placement in the Key field, and Block in the Value field. Leave Name as the Value Type.
    7. Click OK.

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Instant Download!

PDF Accessibility Remediation How to Fix 40 Common Errors

Whether you have limited experience with the PDF remediation process, are expanding your knowledge on how to remediate PDFs, or simply need a resource that can help remind you how to fix a frustrating error, the info provided in this e-book can help.

Download now.

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ACCESSIBLE SOCIAL MEDIA: How to Add/Edit Alt Text for Instagram Photos

Instagram Logos

Instagram uses Automatic alt text object recognition technology to provide a visual description of photos for people with visual impairments. You can replace this text to provide a better description of a photo. Keep in mind that this description will only be read if someone is using a screen reader to access Instagram.

To see and edit alt text for a photo before you post it on Instagram:

  1. Start by taking a photo or uploading an existing photo to Instagram.
  2. Choose a filter and edit the image, then tap Next.
  3. Tap Advanced Settings at the bottom of the screen.
  4. Tap Write Alt Text.
  5. Write your alt text in the box and tap Done (iPhone) or Save (Android).

To change the alt text of a photo after you’ve already posted it on Instagram:

  1. Go to the photo and tap (iPhone) or(Android).
  2. Tap Edit.
  3. Tap Edit Alt Text in the bottom right.
  4. Write the alt text in the box and tap Done (iPhone) or (Android).

[SOURCE]

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WEBSITE ACCESSIBILITY TESTING & REMEDIATION SERVICES: Mary Gillen is an experienced Website Accessibility Compliance Auditor and Remediator. She can test your website to determine if it meets accessibility standards:

WCAG 2.1: 312 checkpoints covering A, AA and AAA W3 accessibility guidelines
Section 508: 15 US federal guidelines covered by 59 accessibility checkpoints

Find out more about Mary Gillen’s Accessibility Testing & Remediation Services: Websites, PDFs, Office Docs & Videos

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ACCESSIBLE DESIGN: Check Out Coolors, the Color Schemes Generator

Color Palettes

Need color palette ideas for a new website project?

Coolors to the rescue!

Created during a weekend as a personal project by Italian web designer/developer Fabrizio Bianchi, Coolors is an online tool that allows you to generate new palettes or view trending palettes created by others.

Coolors is also available as an iOS app, an Adobe add-on and a Chrome extension.

For accessibility testing, Coolors has a color contrast checker and a tool that checks your proposed palette against eight types of color vision deficiencies experienced by users who are color blind.

Eight Types of Color Blindness

Your palettes can also be exported eight different ways:

Export Palette Types of Files

Try it yourself at https://coolors.co/

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WEBSITE ACCESSIBILITY TESTING & REMEDIATION SERVICES: Mary Gillen is an experienced Website Accessibility Compliance Auditor and Remediator. She can test your website to determine if it meets accessibility standards:

WCAG 2.1: 312 checkpoints covering A, AA and AAA W3 accessibility guidelines
Section 508: 15 US federal guidelines covered by 59 accessibility checkpoints

Find out more about Mary Gillen’s Accessibility Testing & Remediation Services: Websites, PDFs, Office Docs & Videos

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ACCESSIBLE CONTENT: How to Localize Language for Screen Readers

Alt Text phrase spelled out with blocks

According to the WCAG 2.1 Guideline 3.1.1 Language of Page (Level A), “The default human language of each Web page can be programmatically determined.”

The LANG attribute is designed to alert screen readers on the appropriate language to use when announcing page content.

To assign a primary language to an HTML page, add the lang attribute to the <html> tag. Here’s how you would add the language attribute for US English:

<!DOCTYPE>
<html lang=”en-US”>

But what if you use more than one language on your Web page?

Here are some tips that can help.

1) DEFAULT LANGUAGE: When a Web page uses several languages, the default text-processing language is the language which is used most. If several languages are used equally, the first language used should be chosen as the default human language. [SOURCE]

2) ALT TEXT: Alt attribute values should contain text in the primary language of the page. If the main language of the page is French, then the alternative text for images needs to be in French. [SOURCE]

3) LANGUAGE CHANGE ON THE PAGE: According to the WCAG 2.1 – 3.1.2 – Language of Parts (Level AA) Guideline, screen readers need to be notified when the language on a page changes. To do so, add a language attribute to the tag that surrounds the content that is not in the primary language.

EXAMPLES

US English: “The Grapes of Wrath”
French Translation: <p lang=”fra”>”Les raisins de la colère”</p>
German Translation: <div lang=”de”>”Früchte des Zorns”</div>

RESOURCE: Table of Language Codes

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WEBSITE ACCESSIBILITY TESTING & REMEDIATION SERVICES: Mary Gillen is an experienced Website Accessibility Compliance Auditor and Remediator. She can test your website to determine if it meets accessibility standards:

WCAG 2.1: 312 checkpoints covering A, AA and AAA W3 accessibility guidelines
Section 508: 15 US federal guidelines covered by 59 accessibility checkpoints

Find out more about Mary Gillen’s Accessibility Testing & Remediation Services: Websites, PDFs, Office Docs & Videos

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